Supplement DGKH - Hygiene und Medizin - Antiseptik


Virucidal activity of WHO-recommended formulations against enveloped viruses including Zika, Ebola and emerging Coronaviruses

The World Health Organization (WHO) published two alcohol-based formulations to be used in healthcare settings and outbreak-associated infections, but inactivation efficacies of these products have not been determined against (re-)emerging viruses. In this study, we evaluated the virucidal activity of these WHO products in a comparative analysis against different enveloped viruses.

Zika virus (ZIKV), Ebola virus (EBOV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), influenzavirus (H1N1), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) served as test viruses. Virucidal activity studies were performed with a quantitative suspension test with 30 seconds exposure time. All viruses tested were highly susceptible to the WHO formulations.
WHO formulation II, which is based on isopropanol, demonstrated a better virucidal effect compared to the ethanol-containing WHO formulation I. Coronaviruses and ZIKV showed the highest susceptibility to both WHO formulations. Higher product concentrations were required for complete inactivation of EBOV and HCV, whereas H1N1, HBV and MVA displayed the highest stability.

ZIKV, EBOV, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, CHIKV as (re-) emerging viral pathogens and other enveloped viruses could be efficiently inactivated by both WHO formulations implicating
their use in healthcare systems and viral outbreak situations.

A. Siddharta1, S. Pfaender2, 3, N. J. Vielle2, 3, 4, R. Dijkman2, 3, M. Friesland1, B. Becker5, J. Yang6, M. Engelmann1, D. Todt1, M. P. Windisch6, F. H. H. Brill5, S. Pahl5, J. Steinmann7, J. Steinmann5, S. Becker8, M. P. Alves2, 3, T. Pietschmann1, M. Eickmann8, V. Thiel2, 3, E. Steinmann1
( 1 Institute of Experimental Virology, Twincore, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection  Research; a joint venture between the Medical School Hannover (MHH) and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Germany
2 Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
3 Federal Department of Home Affairs, Institute of Virology and Immunology, Bern and Mittelhäusern, Switzerland
4 Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
5 Dr. Brill + Partner GmbH Institute for Hygiene and Microbiology, Bremen, Germany
6 Applied Molecular Virology, Institut Pasteur Korea, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
7 Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany
8 Institute for Virology, Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany)

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